The city-walls built by the Lusignans were very high but thin. After the Venetians captured the island from the Lusignans, they brought over specialists from Venice to fortify the walls against artillery fire particularly to protect themselves from the Ottomans. The wall on the sea front, the Mantinengo bastion and the Kara (Land) Gate were built during this period. A ditch 46 metres wide was dug on the outer flanks of the wall and was filled with water. The wall built of ashlar is 3 kilometres in length and reaches 9 metres in width at some points. The city-walls have bastions, gates, ramps, embrasures, arms depots, depots and stables.
The towers of the walls are as follows: · Arsenal (Canbulat) · Mare (The Sea Gate Bastion) · Castella (The Othello tower) · Signonia (The Ringed Embrasure) · Diamete (The Karpaz Bastion) · Mozzo (The Martyr Bastion) · Martinengo (Arsenal) · Pulacazaro · Moratto · Diocare · Ravelin (The Land Gate, The White Tower) · Santa Napa (The Golden Bastion) · Andurizzi (The water bastion) · Campo Santa (The Ringed Bastion) There is also the Othello building as an interior castle, the two original entrances; Ravelin (The Land Gate) and Porta del Mare but they were The Ottomans later restored the walls that were destroyed during the invasion of Famagusta.